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  • Dr Tarangini V

Significance of Ultrasound in Early diagnosis of Cancers

What is Ultrasound?

Diagnostic ultrasound is an imaging test that uses high-frequency sound waves to create images of structures inside the body. Images can provide valuable information for the diagnosis and treatment of various illnesses and conditions.

Ultrasound (also known as ultrasonography, or sonogram) helps doctors look for tumours in specific areas of the body that are not well visible on x-rays. Doctors often use this procedure to guide the needle during a biopsy. Ultrasound is usually quick and most do not require special preparation.


How does an ultrasound work?

A device called a transducer turns the sound waves into images. The sound waves echo differently when bouncing off abnormal tissue and healthy tissue. This imaging helps the doctor with detecting a potential tumor. Ultrasound devices create images called sonograms by emitting high-frequency sound waves that travel through the body. Echoes occur when sound waves hit an organ or tissue and bounce off. Machines convert these echoes into real-time images that show the structure and movement of organs, and even blood flow through blood vessels. The image can be seen on the computer screen.

The use of diagnostic imaging is to find out where the cancer is in the body, whether it has spread, and how much it is. When used in this way, diagnostic imaging helps determine at what stage (how far) cancer has progressed and whether the cancer is in, around, or near major organs or blood vessels.


Ultrasound Of Cystic Fibrosis In Children

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Application of Ultrasound Imaging in Cancer Diagnosis


(1) Morphological diagnosis of visceral lesions and general anatomical examination of organs: ultrasonic diagnosis can perform tomographic images of various organs according to the changes in tissues and the morphological changes of pathological anatomy related to the image. The image and morphological manifestations are consistent, and localization and qualitative diagnosis can be achieved based on tomographic image lesions.


(2) Functional study of changes in ultrasound images or Doppler ultrasound spectrum produced by the physiological characteristics of certain organs and tissues: echocardiography and Doppler ultrasound can be used to detect double power systolic and diastolic function, blood flow and blood flow measurement, gallbladder swelling and gastric function discharge, respiratory diaphragm activity, and so on.


(3) Through ultrasonic infiltration experiments, invasive ultrasound not only closely links ultrasound diagnosis with clinical-pathological cytology, biological systems and other techniques, but also improves the diagnostic ability of ultrasound. .. It can also be used to guide the puncture of an ultrasound needle to inject a therapeutic agent, or to use lasers, microwaves, or other means to remove exudates, bleeding, and abscesses, facilitating the clinical application of ultrasound.


Ultrasound is a regular component of diagnostic procedures for many cancers, including stomach cancer, breast cancer, prostate cancer and ovarian cancer at Cancer Treatment Centers America. There are also internal ultrasounds called endoscopies. An endoscope is a thin, flexible tube-shaped device with a transducer attached to it that is inserted into the vagina, anus or mouth.



The potential benefits of undergoing an ultrasound include:

  • Usually, the procedure is done quickly.

  • Patients will not be exposed to radiation.

  • No need for advance preparation

  • The ultrasound procedure may be performed on an outpatient basis.

An ultrasound is used to discover a tumour by showing the exact location of tumours in the body. It can also help the doctor perform a biopsy. A biopsy is a procedure in which a small amount of tissue is removed for examination. Ultrasounds are generally painless, but patients may feel some discomfort or pain during the time of the exam. The test takes about 20 to 60 minutes. The time generally depends on the body part being examined.


Deadliest Cancers:

Epithelial ovarian cancer kills more women than all other gynecologic malignancies combined because of the inability of doctors to detect early-stage disease. Ultrasonography has revealed usefulness in the detection of ovarian cancer in asymptomatic women. The researchers examined the usefulness of sonography in the detection of early-stage epithelial ovarian cancer in asymptomatic high-risk women who participated in the National Ovarian Cancer Early Detection Program.

Pancreatic cancer remains one of the deadliest cancers in the world, usually with a delayed diagnosis and a poor prognosis. Early detection is the most important fundamental factor in improving the prognosis of patients with pancreatic cancer. One of the most effective strategies for early detection of cancer is to screen the general population. However, the low incidence of pancreatic cancer in the general population makes it important to stratify patients who need further investigation through invasive and costly modalities. Therefore, there is an urgent need for minimally invasive therapies, including diagnostic imaging methods that facilitate the early detection of pancreatic cancer.


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With the increasing burden of breast cancer and the infeasibility of mammography, the researchers believe the potential use of ultrasound as an effective primary detection tool for breast cancer, may be beneficial in low-resource settings where mammography is unavailable.

Pointing at the problems of low efficiency, low precision, and long time-consuming in the process of tumour diagnosis and detection. Ultrasound imaging plays an important role in the early detection of cancers.


 

References:

1. American College of Radiology/Radiological Society of North America. RadiologyInfo. General Ultrasound (Sonography). June 23, 2014.

2. Avril N, Rose CA, Schelling M, Dose J, Kuhn W, Bense S, Weber W, Ziegler S, Graeff H, Schwaiger M. Breast imaging with positron emission tomography and fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose: use and limitations. Journal of clinical oncology: official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology 2000; 18:3495–502. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

3. Balleyguier C, Opolon P, Mathieu MC, Athanasiou A, Garbay JR, Delaloge S, Dromain C. New potential and applications of contrast-enhanced ultrasound of the breast: Own investigations and review of the literature. European journal of radiology 2009; 69:14–23. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

4. Barr RG. Sonographic breast elastography: a primer. Journal of ultrasound in medicine: official journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine 2012; 31:773–83. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

5. Bastardis-Zakas K, Iatrakis G, Navrozoglou I, Peitsidis P, Salakos N, Malakassis P, Zervoudis S. Maximizing the benefits of screening mammography for women 40–49 years old. Clinical and experimental obstetrics & gynecology 2010; 37:278–82. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]


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